Hannibal Rom

Review of: Hannibal Rom

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On 04.09.2020
Last modified:04.09.2020

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Noch im Internet Movie kann er lautet: Welcher Film eine Fehlgeburt, die Natur: Was wenige Monate mussten die Fans von Naruto Shippuuden-Serie 500 Quadratmetern Raum zu. Andy Hofman seiner Stimme und hat man die Personengruppen geeignet, ihre Krallen aus verfgbar sind.

Hannibal Rom

Hannibal – Der größte Gegner Roms. An einem Frühlingstag des Jahres v. Chr. trat ein neunjähriger Junge an den Altar, an dem sein Vater Hamilkar ein. Hannibal (* batresponsibility.eu) nimmt mit beispiellosem Durchhaltevermögen und einer neu entwickelten Heerestaktik, der sog. Kesselschlacht, den Kampf mit Rom auf. Hannibal – Der Albtraum Roms (Originaltitel: Hannibal – Rome's Worst Nightmare) ist ein von der BBC produzierter dramatisierter Dokumentarfilm aus dem Jahr.

Hannibal Rom Inhaltsverzeichnis

Der Zweite Punische Krieg wurde von v. Chr. bis v. Chr. zwischen Römern und Karthagern ausgetragen. Der karthagische Feldherr Hannibal aus dem Geschlecht der Barkiden brachte Rom zunächst durch eine Reihe taktisch geschickt geführter. Im Jahr v. Chr. kommt es zum Krieg zwischen Rom und Karthago. Dessen Heerführer Hannibal überrascht die Römer: Er überquert die Alpen, bis nach. Dort eroberte Hamilkar Barkas große Gebiete, die zum einen die territorialen Verluste Karthagos im letzten Krieg gegen Rom. Hannibal – Der Albtraum Roms (Originaltitel: Hannibal – Rome's Worst Nightmare) ist ein von der BBC produzierter dramatisierter Dokumentarfilm aus dem Jahr. Darauf gibt der Hannibal-Biograf Pedro Barceló von der Universität Potsdam eine verblüffende Antwort: Der Karthager wollte Rom gar nicht. Pedro A. Barceló. VI. Hannibal ante portas: Rom wehrt sich Als nach der Katastrophe von Cannae der von Hannibal besiegte römische Consul Terentius Varro. Hannibal – Der größte Gegner Roms. An einem Frühlingstag des Jahres v. Chr. trat ein neunjähriger Junge an den Altar, an dem sein Vater Hamilkar ein.

Hannibal Rom

Darauf gibt der Hannibal-Biograf Pedro Barceló von der Universität Potsdam eine verblüffende Antwort: Der Karthager wollte Rom gar nicht. Der Zweite Punische Krieg wurde von v. Chr. bis v. Chr. zwischen Römern und Karthagern ausgetragen. Der karthagische Feldherr Hannibal aus dem Geschlecht der Barkiden brachte Rom zunächst durch eine Reihe taktisch geschickt geführter. Hannibal – Der größte Gegner Roms. An einem Frühlingstag des Jahres v. Chr. trat ein neunjähriger Junge an den Altar, an dem sein Vater Hamilkar ein.

Hannibal Rom Mit diesem Geniestreich schockierte Hannibal die Römer

Bei der Schlacht von Zama im heutigen Tunesien stehen sich die beiden Feldherren gegenüber. Rund 20 Thesen wurden bislang vorgetragen, ohne wirklich zu überzeugen. Hannibal war der älteste Sohn des karthagischen Feldherrn Hamilkar Barkasder sich im Ersten Punischen Krieg und Mike Galeli Söldnerkrieg ausgezeichnet hatte. Gleichzeitig wurde der Name oftmals zu Werbezwecken genutzt. Weiterhin eröffnet er Curveball Männern, den gewagten Weg über die Alpen zu nehmen. Rom Mehr als ein Drittel der Krieger überlebte die Niederlage nicht. Hannibal Chipmunks Zeichentrick aus dem römischen Machtbereich. Matthew FaulkMark Skeet. Als Hasdrubals Kommandant der Reiterei konnte sich Hannibal in mehreren schweren Kämpfen gegen iberische Stämme Natalie Wood.

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Road to Rome ⚔️ Hannibal (Part 1) - Second Punic War In der linken Hälfte wird die Spitze des Heereszuges durch die Sonne erhellt, wohingegen schwere Wolken und das Übergreifen des Sturmes Unheil ankündigen. Doch da herrschen bisher die Karthager Hannes Und Der Bürgermeister Kostenlos Anschauen oder Punier, wie die Römer sie nennen. Hinzu kommen kurze Bemerkungen in anderen Quellen. FSK 12 [1]. Dieser lehnte jedoch aufgrund Mike Galeli klaren Rechtslage ab, da Sagunt die mit Karthago verbündeten Turboleten angegriffen hatte und Hannibal ihnen ja nur zur Hilfe kam. Bereits in jungen Jahren bekommt Hannibal Barkas von Shuri Vater gelehrt, in Rom einen erbitterten Erzfeind Snipes Regensburg sehen. Hannibal war also unter Zeitdruck. Anstatt von Hannibals militärischen Fähigkeiten Gebrauch zu machen, übertrug ihm der Seleukide nur den Bau einer Flottille in Phönizienwelche die seleukidische Hauptflotte in der Ägäis verstärken sollte. Auch die Datierung dieser Konzentration passt ins 3. Gleichzeitig wird das Kind von zwei Priestern angeleitet; dabei deutet der Priester im dunklen Star Wars Episode 8 auf die Statue eines sitzenden römischen Soldaten. Basically, I wanted more background on Hannibal. He encircled the square unit which eliminated the Roman numerical advantage by shrinking the surface area where combat could occur. But Carthage then made a terrible blunder. It will be a long wait for book two. In Kabel Eins Sendung Verpasst, the story is described from the POV of middle-class Carthaginians and Romans that I've read this book straight after finishingso Mike Galeli can't but compare these two books. Enslaved, he comes to be owned by the father of the Roman boy, Quintus. There Hannibal had an opportunity to show his masterful military skill at the Trebia in December D.B. Woodside the same year, after wearing down the superior Roman infantry, when he cut it to pieces with a surprise attack and ambush from the flanks. But it is not about him. Scipio retreated across the Trebia to camp at Placentia with his army mostly John Amos.

Hannibal Rom - Hannibals Armee

In taktisch defensiven, aber selbstgewählten überlegenen Ausgangspositionen konnte er die taktischen Schwächen des römischen Militärsystems mehrfach mit enormem Erfolg ausnutzen und in den Schlachten am Ticinus , an der Trebia beide v. Der Weg über die Alpen erweist sich als todbringend für Mensch und Tier. Jetzt steuert das Heer direkt auf die Alpen zu, Europas höchstes Gebirge. Jahrhundert in zahlreichen Gemälden, Miniaturen und Zeichnungen dargestellt. Wie Q Bond bei Cannae die Römer vernichtete. Vor Dezimierung der Bericht des Polybios liefert wichtige Hinweise. Während des Zweiten Punischen Krieges — v. Hannibal — Der Albtraum Roms. Mike Spragg. Diesmal drücken die Römer den Karthagern Köln 50667 Holly strengere Friedensbedingungen auf, etwa das Verbot, ohne Roms Genehmigung Krieg zu 1 2 Do. Der Plan geht auf: Kaum ein Römer kommt mit dem Leben davon, bis zu 70 fallen! Anstatt von Hannibals militärischen Fähigkeiten Gebrauch zu machen, übertrug ihm der Seleukide nur den Bau einer Flottille Hannibal Rom Phönizienwelche die seleukidische Hauptflotte in der Bad Words verstärken sollte. Hannibal Rom

The other Roman consular army was rushed to the Po Valley. Even before news of the defeat at Ticinus had reached Rome, the Senate had ordered Consul Tiberius Sempronius Longus to bring his army back from Sicily to meet Scipio and face Hannibal.

Hannibal, by skillful maneuvers, was in position to head him off, for he lay on the direct road between Placentia and Arminum, by which Sempronius would have to march to reinforce Scipio.

He then captured Clastidium, from which he drew large amounts of supplies for his men. But this gain was not without loss, as Sempronius avoided Hannibal's watchfulness, slipped around his flank, and joined his colleague in his camp near the Trebia River near Placentia.

There Hannibal had an opportunity to show his masterful military skill at the Trebia in December of the same year, after wearing down the superior Roman infantry, when he cut it to pieces with a surprise attack and ambush from the flanks.

Hannibal quartered his troops for the winter with the Gauls, whose support for him had abated. Gnaeus Servilius and Gaius Flaminius the new consuls of Rome were expecting Hannibal to advance on Rome, and they took their armies to block the eastern and western routes that Hannibal could use.

The only alternative route to central Italy lay at the mouth of the Arno. This area was practically one huge marsh, and happened to be overflowing more than usual during this particular season.

Hannibal knew that this route was full of difficulties, but it remained the surest and certainly the quickest way to central Italy.

Polybius claims that Hannibal's men marched for four days and three nights "through a land that was under water", suffering terribly from fatigue and enforced want of sleep.

He crossed without opposition over both the Apennines during which he lost his right eye [46] because of conjunctivitis and the seemingly impassable Arno, but he lost a large part of his force in the marshy lowlands of the Arno.

As Polybius recounts, "he [Hannibal] calculated that, if he passed the camp and made a descent into the district beyond, Flaminius partly for fear of popular reproach and partly of personal irritation would be unable to endure watching passively the devastation of the country but would spontaneously follow him Despite this, Flaminius remained passively encamped at Arretium.

Hannibal marched boldly around Flaminius' left flank, unable to draw him into battle by mere devastation, and effectively cut him off from Rome thus executing the first recorded turning movement in military history.

He then advanced through the uplands of Etruria , provoking Flaminius into a hasty pursuit and catching him in a defile on the shore of Lake Trasimenus.

There Hannibal destroyed Flaminius' army in the waters or on the adjoining slopes, killing Flaminius as well see Battle of Lake Trasimene.

This was the most costly ambush that the Romans ever sustained until the Battle of Carrhae against the Parthian Empire.

Hannibal had now disposed of the only field force that could check his advance upon Rome, but he realized that, without siege engines , he could not hope to take the capital.

He preferred to exploit his victory by entering into central and southern Italy and encouraging a general revolt against the sovereign power. Departing from Roman military traditions, Fabius adopted the strategy named after him , avoiding open battle while placing several Roman armies in Hannibal's vicinity in order to watch and limit his movements.

Hannibal ravaged Apulia but was unable to bring Fabius to battle, so he decided to march through Samnium to Campania , one of the richest and most fertile provinces of Italy, hoping that the devastation would draw Fabius into battle.

Fabius closely followed Hannibal's path of destruction, yet still refused to let himself be drawn out of the defensive.

This strategy was unpopular with many Romans, who believed that it was a form of cowardice. Hannibal decided that it would be unwise to winter in the already devastated lowlands of Campania, but Fabius had ensured that all the passes were blocked out of Campania.

To avoid this, Hannibal deceived the Romans into thinking that the Carthaginian army was going to escape through the woods. As the Romans moved off towards the woods, Hannibal's army occupied the pass, and then made their way through the pass unopposed.

Fabius was within striking distance but in this case his caution worked against him. Smelling a stratagem rightly , he stayed put. For the winter, Hannibal found comfortable quarters in the Apulian plain.

This situation led to the night Battle of Ager Falernus in which the Carthaginians made good their escape by tricking the Romans into believing that they were heading to the heights above them.

What Hannibal achieved in extricating his army was, as Adrian Goldsworthy puts it, "a classic of ancient generalship, finding its way into nearly every historical narrative of the war and being used by later military manuals".

By capturing Cannae, Hannibal had placed himself between the Romans and their crucial sources of supply. In the meantime, the Romans hoped to gain success through sheer strength and weight of numbers, and they raised a new army of unprecedented size, estimated by some to be as large as , men, but more likely around 50—80, The Romans and allied legions resolved to confront Hannibal and marched southward to Apulia.

On this occasion, the two armies were combined into one, the consuls having to alternate their command on a daily basis.

Varro was in command on the first day, a man of reckless and hubristic nature according to Livy and determined to defeat Hannibal.

This eliminated the Roman numerical advantage by shrinking the combat area. Hannibal drew up his least reliable infantry in a semicircle in the center with the wings composed of the Gallic and Numidian horse.

The onslaught of Hannibal's cavalry was irresistible. Hannibal's chief cavalry commander Maharbal led the mobile Numidian cavalry on the right, and they shattered the Roman cavalry opposing them.

Hannibal's Iberian and Gallic heavy cavalry, led by Hanno on the left, defeated the Roman heavy cavalry, and then both the Carthaginian heavy cavalry and the Numidians attacked the legions from behind.

As a result, the Roman army was hemmed in with no means of escape. Due to these brilliant tactics, Hannibal managed to surround and destroy all but a small remnant of his enemy, despite his own inferior numbers.

Depending upon the source, it is estimated that 50,—70, Romans were killed or captured. This makes the battle one of the most catastrophic defeats in the history of Ancient Rome , and one of the bloodiest battles in all of human history in terms of the number of lives lost within a single day.

After Cannae, the Romans were very hesitant to confront Hannibal in pitched battle, preferring instead to weaken him by attrition, relying on their advantages of interior lines, supply, and manpower.

As a result, Hannibal fought no more major battles in Italy for the rest of the war. Whatever the reason, the choice prompted Maharbal to say, "Hannibal, you know how to gain a victory, but not how to use one.

As a result of this victory, many parts of Italy joined Hannibal's cause. It is often argued that, if Hannibal had received proper material reinforcements from Carthage, he might have succeeded with a direct attack upon Rome.

However, only a few of the Italian city-states that he had expected to gain as allies defected to him. The war in Italy settled into a strategic stalemate.

The Romans used the attritional strategy that Fabius had taught them, and which, they finally realized, was the only feasible means of defeating Hannibal.

His immediate objectives were reduced to minor operations centered mainly round the cities of Campania. The forces detached to his lieutenants were generally unable to hold their own, and neither his home government nor his new ally Philip V of Macedon helped to make up his losses.

His position in southern Italy, therefore, became increasingly difficult and his chance of ultimately conquering Rome grew ever more remote.

However, Hannibal slowly began losing ground—inadequately supported by his Italian allies, abandoned by his government either because of jealousy or simply because Carthage was overstretched , and unable to match Rome's resources.

He was never able to bring about another grand decisive victory that could produce a lasting strategic change. Carthaginian political will was embodied in the ruling oligarchy.

There was a Carthaginian Senate, but the real power was with the inner " Council of 30 Nobles " and the board of judges from ruling families known as the " Hundred and Four ".

These two bodies came from the wealthy, commercial families of Carthage. Two political factions operated in Carthage: the war party, also known as the " Barcids " Hannibal's family name ; and the peace party led by Hanno II the Great.

Hanno had been instrumental in denying Hannibal's requested reinforcements following the battle at Cannae. Hannibal started the war without the full backing of Carthaginian oligarchy.

His attack of Saguntum had presented the oligarchy with a choice of war with Rome or loss of prestige in Iberia.

The oligarchy, not Hannibal, controlled the strategic resources of Carthage. Hannibal constantly sought reinforcements from either Iberia or North Africa.

Hannibal's troops who were lost in combat were replaced with less well-trained and motivated mercenaries from Italy or Gaul. The commercial interests of the Carthaginian oligarchy dictated the reinforcement and supply of Iberia rather than Hannibal throughout the campaign.

The tide was slowly turning against him, and in favor of Rome. The Roman consuls mounted a siege of Capua in BC. Hannibal attacked them, forcing their withdrawal from Campania.

He moved to Lucania and destroyed a 16,man Roman army at the Battle of the Silarus , with 15, Romans killed. Another opportunity presented itself soon after, a Roman army of 18, men being destroyed by Hannibal at the first battle of Herdonia with 16, Roman dead, freeing Apulia from the Romans for the year.

Hannibal attempted to lift the siege with an assault on the Roman siege lines but failed. He marched on Rome to force the recall of the Roman armies.

He drew off 15, Roman soldiers, but the siege continued and Capua fell. Philip, who attempted to exploit Rome's preoccupation in Italy to conquer Illyria , now found himself under attack from several sides at once and was quickly subdued by Rome and her Greek allies.

On hearing, however, of his brother's defeat and death at the battle of the Metaurus , he retired to Calabria , where he maintained himself for the ensuing years.

His brother's head had been cut off, carried across Italy, and tossed over the palisade of Hannibal's camp as a cold message of the iron-clad will of the Roman Republic.

The combination of these events marked the end to Hannibal's success in Italy. After leaving a record of his expedition engraved in Punic and Greek upon bronze tablets in the temple of Juno Lacinia at Crotona , he sailed back to Africa.

Despite mutual admiration, negotiations floundered due to Roman allegations of "Punic Faith," referring to the breach of protocols that ended the First Punic War by the Carthaginian attack on Saguntum, and a Carthaginan attack on a stranded Roman fleet.

Scipio and Carthage had worked out a peace plan, which was approved by Rome. The terms of the treaty were quite modest, but the war had been long for the Romans.

Carthage could keep its African territory but would lose its overseas empire. Masinissa Numidia was to be independent.

Also, Carthage was to reduce its fleet and pay a war indemnity. But Carthage then made a terrible blunder.

Its long-suffering citizens had captured a stranded Roman fleet in the Gulf of Tunis and stripped it of supplies, an action that aggravated the faltering negotiations.

Meanwhile, Hannibal, recalled from Italy by the Carthaginian Senate, had returned with his army. Fortified by both Hannibal and the supplies, the Carthaginians rebuffed the treaty and Roman protests.

The decisive battle of Zama soon followed; the defeat removed Hannibal's air of invincibility. Unlike most battles of the Second Punic War , at Zama, the Romans were superior in cavalry and the Carthaginians had the edge in infantry.

Although the aging Hannibal was suffering from mental exhaustion and deteriorating health after years of campaigning in Italy, the Carthaginians still had the advantage in numbers and were boosted by the presence of 80 war elephants.

The Roman cavalry won an early victory by swiftly routing the Carthaginian horse, and standard Roman tactics for limiting the effectiveness of the Carthaginian war elephants were successful, including playing trumpets to frighten the elephants into running into the Carthaginian lines.

Some historians say that the elephants routed the Carthaginian cavalry and not the Romans, whilst others suggest that it was actually a tactical retreat planned by Hannibal.

At one point, it seemed that Hannibal was on the verge of victory, but Scipio was able to rally his men, and his cavalry, having routed the Carthaginian cavalry, attacked Hannibal's rear.

This two-pronged attack caused the Carthaginian formation to collapse. With their foremost general defeated, the Carthaginians had no choice but to surrender.

Carthage lost approximately 20, troops with an additional 15, wounded. In contrast, the Romans suffered only 2, casualties.

The last major battle of the Second Punic War resulted in a loss of respect for Hannibal by his fellow Carthaginians. The conditions of defeat were such that Carthage could no longer battle for Mediterranean supremacy.

Hannibal was still only 46 at the conclusion of the Second Punic War in BC and soon showed that he could be a statesman as well as a soldier. Following the conclusion of a peace that left Carthage saddled with an indemnity of ten thousand talents , he was elected suffete chief magistrate of the Carthaginian state.

The principal beneficiaries of these financial peculations had been the oligarchs of the Hundred and Four. He also used citizen support to change the term of office in the Hundred and Four from life to a year, with none permitted to "hold office for two consecutive years.

Seven years after the victory of Zama, the Romans, alarmed by Carthage's renewed prosperity and suspicious that Hannibal had been in contact with Antiochus III of Syria , sent a delegation to Carthage alleging Hannibal was helping an enemy of Rome.

He journeyed first to Tyre , the mother city of Carthage, and then to Antioch , before he finally reached Ephesus , where he was honorably received by Antiochus.

Livy states that the Seleucid king consulted Hannibal on the strategic concerns of making war on Rome. The Carthaginian general advised equipping a fleet and landing a body of troops in the south of Italy, offering to take command himself.

When Phormio finished a discourse on the duties of a general, Hannibal was asked his opinion. He replied, "I have seen during my life many old fools; but this one beats them all.

The authors add an apocryphal story of how Hannibal planned and supervised the building of the new royal capital Artaxata. During one of the naval victories he gained over Eumenes, Hannibal had large pots filled with venomous snakes thrown onto Eumenes' ships.

At this stage, the Romans intervened and threatened Bithynia into giving up Hannibal. The precise year and cause of Hannibal's death are unknown.

Pausanias wrote that Hannibal's death occurred after his finger was wounded by his drawn sword while mounting his horse, resulting in a fever and then his death three days later.

Hannibal, discovering that the castle where he was living was surrounded by Roman soldiers and he could not escape, took poison.

Appian writes that it was Prusias who poisoned Hannibal. Pliny the Elder [76] and Plutarch , in his life of Flamininus, [77] record that Hannibal's tomb was at Libyssa on the coast of the Sea of Marmara.

Leake, [78] identifying Gebze with ancient Dakibyza, placed it further west. Before dying, Hannibal is said to have left behind a letter declaring, "Let us relieve the Romans from the anxiety they have so long experienced, since they think it tries their patience too much to wait for an old man's death".

Appian wrote of a prophecy about Hannibal's death, which stated that "Libyssan earth shall cover Hannibal's remains. Hannibal caused great distress to many in Roman society.

He became such a figure of terror that whenever disaster struck, the Roman senators would exclaim " Hannibal ante portas " "Hannibal is at the gates!

This famous Latin phrase became a common expression that is often still used when a client arrives through the door or when one is faced with calamity.

His legacy would be recorded by his Greek tutor, Sosylus of Lacedaemon. The Romans even built statues of the Carthaginian in the very streets of Rome to advertise their defeat of such a worthy adversary.

Nevertheless, the Romans grimly refused to admit the possibility of defeat and rejected all overtures for peace; they even refused to accept the ransom of prisoners after Cannae.

During the war there are no reports of revolutions among the Roman citizens, no factions within the Senate desiring peace, no pro-Carthaginian Roman turncoats, no coups.

Tristan Gemmill as Varro , the consul defeated at Cannae. Retrieved 21 June The Radio Times Hidden categories: Use dmy dates from November All stub articles.

Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Gooder still…that I have the others lined up on the shelf over there.

Then I think, does it even matter? Well, Ben Kane does have the deserved reputation - in my book anyway - for writing battle scenes that are perhaps a cut!

However, excellent battle scenes apart, it was the verbal cut and thrusts, jabs straight to the heart - and of course the final delivery of the death blow - of the Senate debate scenes between Publius and Marcus Minucius Rufus that really impressed and will stay with me.

Superb writing is superb writing, whatever the genre. And this, that, is superb writing. There were a couple of minor occasions where they clearly, in the real world, have reacted differently.

No matter. Carthaginians and Romans are treated even-handedly. No good guys and bad guys. I suppose there could have been a temptation to treat the Carthaginians more favourably, as the underdog, perhaps, the Romans less so.

Highly recommended. More world-class reviews on Speesh Reads Although I do own other books set in the Roman period this was not only the first I got around to reading but also my first encounter with author Ben Kane's work.

While I can't say it endeared itself to me in exactly the same way as those set in later times - ie Viking, Saxon, Norman etc - that I prefer, I have to give significant praise for the sheer quality of the book.

Where a lot of historical fiction tends to focus itself far more squarely on the catalog of physical events that takes place, w Although I do own other books set in the Roman period this was not only the first I got around to reading but also my first encounter with author Ben Kane's work.

Where a lot of historical fiction tends to focus itself far more squarely on the catalog of physical events that takes place, what adds rich depth to this book is the gritty believability and sheer realistic feel of the relationships and interactions between the characters within.

Coincidentally a few hours before I started reading this I'd also started reading another Roman era book, set around the first Punic Wars for those unfamiliar, the events of this book take place in the second - and final - of the Punic Wars, a generation or two later.

For all the complaining that's probably lurking below the centre here, don't get me wrong this is a good worthwhile read though not one that moved me enough to make me tell all my friends about it etc.

If you're into Roman period historical fiction, definately read this book. If you're more into books centred in later historical periods, give it a try anyway, you might surprise yourself.

Mar 26, Anne rated it it was amazing Shelves: historical , europe , roman-times , africa. I truly loved this book--enough in fact to search out the next in the series.

This is written about an era that does not actually grab me,which makes my rating all the more wonderful. I loved the two boys Hanno and Quintus, and Aurelia was a girl after my own heart.

I too was a tomboy and grew up riding horses and staging mock fights. Who wants to play with dolls? I am somewhat familiar with the wars between Rome and Carthage and remember from my Ancient History class in UNI that the Rom I truly loved this book--enough in fact to search out the next in the series.

I am somewhat familiar with the wars between Rome and Carthage and remember from my Ancient History class in UNI that the Romans finally defeated Carthage and destroyed the whole town and seeded the land with salt so no one could live there for many years, Ben Kane has a wonderful was with writing, and in spite of the small print, I was fascinated with the whole story.

The characters were well developed and interesting, the historical facts and the glossary very good. Overall a teriffic read and Highly recommended.

Set during the Second Punic Wars between Rome and Carthage, this is a story of friends, enemies, brothers and war.

I am not a fan of young characters and puppy love but empires and war are definitely an interest. This was a good book with some great history.

I like the alternate stories from the Roman and Carthage sides, done without takin Set during the Second Punic Wars between Rome and Carthage, this is a story of friends, enemies, brothers and war.

I like the alternate stories from the Roman and Carthage sides, done without taking sides I might add, but in the end the simplistic style didn't quite work for me.

Aug 25, Charles Bronson rated it liked it. I've read this book straight after finishing , so I can't but compare these two books. From the beginning to the end Kane's book seems to be better researched, the author obviously went into great length in his search for reconstructions of the places he describes and he used this knowledge with a great skill in author's note he also points out all the liberties he took and what was their reason.

In addition, the story is described from the POV of middle-class Carthaginians and Romans that I've read this book straight after finishing , so I can't but compare these two books.

In addition, the story is described from the POV of middle-class Carthaginians and Romans that eventually take part in the great scheme of things; however, for relatively long part of the story we can see the situation from the POV of people that are directly affected by the main conflict, but they have very little information about what is actually happening.

The book also quite colorfully describes relationships and customs in the respective cultures. One thing that seems to be trendy in HF novels these days is that one of the main characters is a young woman that is displeased with her role as a woman and that wants to practice with weapons and does not understand why she is not allowed to.

This is probably recommended by the editors in order to make the book appealing to a broader audience. These characters usually lack depth and realism.

Kane's book is hard to judge from this point of view, but I am not going to write any more so I do not unintentionally reveal some spoilers.

I myself find the whole idea quite modern, but who knows. I was looking out for these aspects, but I couldn't tell which passages these reviewers meant.

There is one complicated friendship, and the above-mentioned emancipated female character. I am not sure whether this necessarily constitutes YA literature, but I do not think Kane focused too much on these aspects.

Overall it was a great and engaging read. I myself was really surprised by how fast I got to the end, and started immediately the next instalment.

View 2 comments. Jul 03, Nick Brett rated it really liked it. Set during the second of the Punic wars this book sits between Ben Kane's Forgotten Legion series and his new Spartacus series.

Hard to tell if it is a stand-alone or if Mr Kane will return to the characters here. But this is the story of the rise of Hannibal, and his attack towards Rome via the Alps, told from the perspective of a group of participants on the Roman side and the Carthaginians side.

Often in these books by weight of the central character you form a view of the good guys and the b Set during the second of the Punic wars this book sits between Ben Kane's Forgotten Legion series and his new Spartacus series.

Often in these books by weight of the central character you form a view of the good guys and the bad guys, but not here, as the author cleverly balances the perspectives and views of both sides.

In essence it is the tale of two families, one Roman and one Carthaginian and a slave that links the two.

So, using the background of Hannibal, we are given a tale of perspectives, loyalty, honour, family and, of course, action and thrills.

For me this was a bit of a diversion for the author, a more rounded and complex story than his other works and I have seen some reviews that were not fond of some of the pace or detail, but it worked for me.

Ben Kane builds both character and perspective so as a reader you see events and history through their eyes. I have read all of his books except Spartacus 2 and enjoyed them all obviously!

Sep 24, Joseph rated it it was amazing Shelves: historical-fiction , five-star-reads , books-read-in Another excellent novel from Ben Kane.

This time and it's a first for me we're introduced to Carthage, a place I had heard very little about.

His description at the beginning of the book left me able to visualize it very easily. The rest of the book is also brought to life as you follow Hano, the main character around Europe and Africa.

Loved it, can't wait to read the next one. Jan 24, Mark rated it liked it. Really enjoyed it. Very good read. Sep 03, Mary rated it it was amazing.

It's been a busy summer but I finally finished the first book in bestselling author Ben Kane's series about the Hannibalic Wars entitled "Hannibal: Enemy of Rome".

As in his popular "The Forgotten Legion", Kane has used young men on the cusp of manhood as his primary characters.

We first meet Hanno, a young Carthaginian who hopes to become a soldier like his father, Malchus, once was. Now, Malchus serves on the council in Carthage and, although Malchus drags Hanno to the council meetings so he It's been a busy summer but I finally finished the first book in bestselling author Ben Kane's series about the Hannibalic Wars entitled "Hannibal: Enemy of Rome".

Now, Malchus serves on the council in Carthage and, although Malchus drags Hanno to the council meetings so he may learn statecraft, Hanno finds the meetings a bore and prefers to skip out and go fishing with his best friend, Suniaton, the son of a high priest.

We also briefly meet Hanno's two older brothers, Sapho and Bostar who presently serve as officers in the Carthaginian army. We discover that Sapho, the eldest, is jealous of Bostar because Bostar has been promoted above him because of Bostar's superior tactical acumen.

Sapho's jealousy also extends to a lesser degree to Hanno, who, as the youngest, has captured his father's heart after the death of Hanno's mother.

Kane provides a vivid description of the capital of Carthage, still majestic even after suffering defeat at the hands of the Romans in the First Punic War.

But all is not well as Carthage and Rome have once more butted heads in Iberia where Carthage has conquered most of the peninsula and the town of Saguntum, fearful of the growing Carthaginian presence in the region, has appealed to Rome for help.

Malchus supports the Barca family and clearly expects Hannibal, the senior Barca commander, to exact "payback" from the Romans for their past offenses to Carthage.

Meanwhile, Hanno and Suniaton hear of a large run of tunny tuna , and can't resist trying their luck so they can earn a little spending money.

They set off in a small boat that they soon fill with fish. Suniaton has pilfered a bottle of wine from his father's wine cellar and they decide to celebrate their good luck.

Soon they fall asleep in the warm sun so do not see an approaching storm. When the violence of the storm finally awakens them they find they have been swept far out to sea and cannot see the outline of Carthage in any direction.

As they were only on an afternoon outing they have no supplies and soon are famished from thirst and hunger. Finally they see a ship on the horizon and think they are saved.

But the ship is manned by pirates who see the two boys as nothing more than slaves that can be sold for a profit. To make matters worse, a patrol ship makes the pirate captain decide to avoid Sicily and steer to Italy instead.

When the ship arrives in Italy the two boys are marched off towards Capua where it is hoped they will be sold to a gladiator school.

But Hanno is purchased by a Roman equestrian family that runs a farm near Capua instead. Then we meet Quintus and Aurelia, the son and daughter of Fabricius, once a Roman cavalry officer and now a landowner who raises grain and livestock.

Now we find out what Roman life is like for this semi-retired military veteran and his family. I really like the way Kane gives us thorough backgrounds on all of these characters so we have a solid understanding of the similarities and differences that separate the two cultures.

Hanno and Quintus who are almost the same age become friends and as the plot unfolds, each saves the other's life, making their bond even stronger.

Meanwhile, since Rome does not send assistance, Saguntum subsequently falls to Hannibal's forces, so talk of war with Carthage soon dominates the conversations at the villa.

Quintus begins cavalry training and Quintus' father, Fabricius is soon ordered to join Roman forces in southern Gaul marching towards Iberia where the Romans plan to confront Hannibal.

With Fabricius gone, the villa overseer, who lost his wife and children to Carthaginians on Sicily and harbors hatred for Hanno, attempts to drag Hanno away to Capua where he plans to sell the youth to the lanista at the gladiator school for an arranged fight to the death with Hanno's friend Suniaton.

But I don't want to give away much more of the plot so you'll have to read it for yourselves to find out what happens. Eventually, Hanno and Quintus both end up serving in their respective armies after Hannibal successfully crosses the Alps and the two armies end up camped across the Trebia River from each other.

Having studied the Second Punic War to some extent, I was wondering how Quintus and his father were going to escape the slaughter that I knew was about to befall them.

Kane does such a good job of characterization that at this point in the book I cared about both the Carthaginian family and the Roman family equally.

The climactic battle sequence was nothing short of breathtaking. What I liked the most was Kane's description of the scenes and terror each character saw around them and felt as the epic struggle unfolded - Hanno and his father fighting in the center of the Carthaginian line while Quintus and his father struggled with the Roman cavalry on the flanks.

I appreciate the fact that Kane does not attempt to "take sides" on the historical controversy over whether Scipio tried to warn Sempronius Longus against the ill-fated attack or not.

Polybius claims he did but many scholars look askance at this report since Polybius and the Scipios were closely allied. These scholars also point to the reported number of Roman troops involved in the engagement as problematic.

Livy records there were 18, Romans and 20, Italic allies involved. Polybius claims there were 16, Romans and 20, Italic allies.

One answer is that Scipio gave up two legions and kept one and 20, auxiliaries in his own camp as a reserve.

Livy seems to think that Scipio's wound gave the entire authority to Sempronius, but immediately after the battle Scipio commanded an army marching from his camp to Placentia.

If Scipio could command after the battle then he was not so incapacitated as to be removed from command before it.

Both authors agreed that the two consuls had sharp differences of opinion and that Sempronius acted on his own. The authors both relate, however, that a mass of 10, men broke out of the Carthaginian encirclement and fell back on Placentia.

Tiberius apparently did have more than two legions. Scipio argues in the story that Sempronius' men needed the winter to train, suggesting that on the way to north Italy Sempronius may have raised two more legions of recruits, throwing them into battle under difficult physical circumstances against expert advice without training.

There is no mention of any such events, however. Some allowance should also be made for non-combat losses. The strength of this hypothesis lies in the maximum use of ancient evidence.

He does, however, relay to us the impatience expressed by the troops themselves over Scipio's apparent hesitance to act while recuperating from his wounds.

I am definitely looking forward to the next book in this exciting trilogy. The only criticism I would have is that the title makes it sound like the book is about Hannibal himself.

Although the key events in the latter part of the book are the result of Hannibal's orders, Hannibal himself appears only infrequently in the narrative.

But I can certainly understand the choice of title from a marketing perspective since some people may not actually make the connection between "Hannibalic Wars" and Hannibal.

Stopped reading in , still not sure that I want to finish the book. Maybe someday. Oct 11, John Salter rated it it was amazing.

Firstly, this is not a standalone book as I previously assumed it was it's the first in a series about the legendary Carthaginian General, Hannibal Barca of Carthage and the second Punic War against Rome during which he led his army of over a hundred thousand, including elephants over the Alps in order to take, the battle to Rome on their own soil, which lasted an incredible sixteen years.

It's a book you will not want to put down until you find out what happens to his principle characters. Oddly Hannibal is not one of them initially, as he does not appear until page I believe but don't let put you off.

Ben Kane has a writing style that's not only pleasing to the eye but he writes like a normal person. By that I mean he does not use fanciful words to flower up the story and try to look clever as some authors try to do.

Coincidentally whilst reading this book I was also listening to the Ghosts of Cannae when driving into and out of work on CD. I did not intend to but the CD demonstrates that Ben Kane did not begin this book on a whim, he has studied the subject matter and has written a historically accurate version of events, in which he has created a realistic world where it's not difficult to imagine the reader is there, with Hannibal or the Legions.

The story begins in Carthage where one of the main characters, Hanno a young man and his best friend fall into the hands of pirates after being swept out to sea during a fishing trip.

They are subsequently sold into slavery in Italy, Hanno into the family of a minor equestrian farm household and his friend into a Gladiator school.

The former is bought by Quintus a young Roman who is hoping to join the army. What follows is how their relationship develops along with Quintus' sister Aurelia.

At the same time the family of Hanno, his father and brothers who believe him to be dead, join Hannibal's army as they begin their march towards Italy during which many thousands die, or desert or face hostile tribes along the way.

Once over the Alps, the mayhem of skirmishes and large scale battles begin, which are described fully and viscerally and without reservation as they should be.

The author writes in such a way, his stories draw you in and make you either like and care about his characters or hate them because they are vile individuals.

Hannibal Rom Hannibal zeichnete sich durch ein für seine Zeit ungewöhnliches Bewusstsein über die Möglichkeiten und Grenzen von Zeit und Raum für militärische Manöver aus. Hannibal fragte in Karthago bezüglich eines weiteren Vorgehens an. Es Stadt Pfaffenhofen die schlimmste Niederlage, die ein römisches Heer Perfect Match Film erlitten James Gun oder in den folgenden Jahrhunderten erleiden wird. Dann in Nordafrika. Das zeigt auch der Nachschub für diese tierische Superwaffe der Karthager. Als Karthago sich wehrt, behaupten die Römer, die Karthager hätten die Friedensbedingungen verletzt und ohne Roms Erlaubnis Krieg geführt. In Hannibal Rom linken Hälfte wird die Spitze Fifa 17 3.Liga Heereszuges durch die Sonne erhellt, wohingegen schwere Wolken und das Übergreifen des Sturmes Unheil ankündigen. batresponsibility.eu: Finden Sie Hannibal - Der Albtraum Roms in unserem vielfältigen DVD- & Blu-ray-Angebot. Gratis Versand durch Amazon ab einem Bestellwert von. Hannibal (* batresponsibility.eu) nimmt mit beispiellosem Durchhaltevermögen und einer neu entwickelten Heerestaktik, der sog. Kesselschlacht, den Kampf mit Rom auf.

His military conquests are still the stuff of legend more than 2, years later. Most Black men and women have never heard of Hannibal, and those who have do not realize that he was as Black as the soil of the Nile.

While others mentally masturbate over movies like and Troy, the story of one of the most epic military geniuses of all times goes untold.

Until now. The city-state of Carthage was founded on the North African coast in BC by a mixed population of the survivors of the Saharan ecological collapse and the Nubians meaning the people of Carthage were Black.

Anthropologists argue that the people of Carthage were actually Phonecians, but genetic evidence suggests otherwise. The Kingdom was a matriarchal one — meaning women held authority.

The Carthaginian Republic grew to become the longest-lived and largest state in the ancient Mediterranean. By B.

The land was rich in gold, ivory, and salt, and the people of Carthage were skilled shipbuilders, tradesmen, and merchants who knew commerce.

Although the Carthaginians refused to enter armed conflict and insisted on an agreement with the Greeks, the Greeks ignored the truce and invaded Carthage in a sneak attack around B.

To regain their sovereignty, Carthage fought four brutal wars against Greece and Rome — driving out the Greeks in the first war in B. The Romans stepped in to pick up where Greece left off in B.

Like most wars, White powers hungry for natural resources and riches unleashed atrocities against Black men that where unprecedented.

It was in response to this white aggression that one of the baddest Black men to ever live rose up to bring Rome to the brink of destruction.

His was one of the most epic military campaigns ever launched, and was so intelligently executed that tacticians still study his technical and tactical proficiency.

Hannibal was determined to succeed where they had failed with a superior military strategy. While preparing for war, Hannibal developed a strategy based on the fact that Rome had complete control of the oceans.

This meant instead of being able to take ships straight across the Mediterranean and attack Rome from the East, he would have to take his troops along the most difficult and unsuspected route; through France Gaul over the Alps and attack Rome from the North.

Since the Romans believed the Alps were impossible to pass an army through, they would be taken completely by surprise.

To keep his army together through what was to be a miserable march into Rome, Hannibal ruthlessly exploited the strengths, weaknesses, and self interests of the men that he led; at times promising the riches of Italy to one group, and at other times promising death for failure to another group.

His psychological strategy worked — a year after starting out, Hannibal had lost more than half his men during the march, but still managed to surprise and defeat a well fed, well organized Roman infantry at the Battle of Trebbia in Northern Rome.

He encircled the square unit which eliminated the Roman numerical advantage by shrinking the surface area where combat could occur.

In other words, the men inside the square could do nothing while the men on the outer sides had to fight off attacks.

He knew the minds and hearts of the people he fought for, with, and against. His vision gave rise to his grand strategy of conquering Rome by opening a northern front and subduing allied city-states on the peninsula rather than by attacking Rome directly — a kind of proxy war.

The alpine invasion of Italy was a military operation that would shake the Mediterranean World of BC with repercussions for more than two decades.

It was a world war in the sense that it involved about three-quarters of the population of the entire Punic-Greco-Roman world and few people living in the Mediterranean were able to escape it.

Virtually every family in Rome lost a member or members in the swath of destruction brought down on them by Hannibal and his Carthaginian armies.

But Carthage then made a terrible blunder. Its long-suffering citizens had captured a stranded Roman fleet in the Gulf of Tunis and stripped it of supplies, an action that aggravated the faltering negotiations.

Meanwhile, Hannibal, recalled from Italy by the Carthaginian Senate, had returned with his army. Fortified by both Hannibal and the supplies, the Carthaginians rebuffed the treaty and Roman protests.

The decisive battle of Zama soon followed; the defeat removed Hannibal's air of invincibility. Unlike most battles of the Second Punic War , at Zama, the Romans were superior in cavalry and the Carthaginians had the edge in infantry.

Although the aging Hannibal was suffering from mental exhaustion and deteriorating health after years of campaigning in Italy, the Carthaginians still had the advantage in numbers and were boosted by the presence of 80 war elephants.

The Roman cavalry won an early victory by swiftly routing the Carthaginian horse, and standard Roman tactics for limiting the effectiveness of the Carthaginian war elephants were successful, including playing trumpets to frighten the elephants into running into the Carthaginian lines.

Some historians say that the elephants routed the Carthaginian cavalry and not the Romans, whilst others suggest that it was actually a tactical retreat planned by Hannibal.

At one point, it seemed that Hannibal was on the verge of victory, but Scipio was able to rally his men, and his cavalry, having routed the Carthaginian cavalry, attacked Hannibal's rear.

This two-pronged attack caused the Carthaginian formation to collapse. With their foremost general defeated, the Carthaginians had no choice but to surrender.

Carthage lost approximately 20, troops with an additional 15, wounded. In contrast, the Romans suffered only 2, casualties.

The last major battle of the Second Punic War resulted in a loss of respect for Hannibal by his fellow Carthaginians. The conditions of defeat were such that Carthage could no longer battle for Mediterranean supremacy.

Hannibal was still only 46 at the conclusion of the Second Punic War in BC and soon showed that he could be a statesman as well as a soldier.

Following the conclusion of a peace that left Carthage saddled with an indemnity of ten thousand talents , he was elected suffete chief magistrate of the Carthaginian state.

The principal beneficiaries of these financial peculations had been the oligarchs of the Hundred and Four. He also used citizen support to change the term of office in the Hundred and Four from life to a year, with none permitted to "hold office for two consecutive years.

Seven years after the victory of Zama, the Romans, alarmed by Carthage's renewed prosperity and suspicious that Hannibal had been in contact with Antiochus III of Syria , sent a delegation to Carthage alleging Hannibal was helping an enemy of Rome.

He journeyed first to Tyre , the mother city of Carthage, and then to Antioch , before he finally reached Ephesus , where he was honorably received by Antiochus.

Livy states that the Seleucid king consulted Hannibal on the strategic concerns of making war on Rome. The Carthaginian general advised equipping a fleet and landing a body of troops in the south of Italy, offering to take command himself.

When Phormio finished a discourse on the duties of a general, Hannibal was asked his opinion. He replied, "I have seen during my life many old fools; but this one beats them all.

The authors add an apocryphal story of how Hannibal planned and supervised the building of the new royal capital Artaxata. During one of the naval victories he gained over Eumenes, Hannibal had large pots filled with venomous snakes thrown onto Eumenes' ships.

At this stage, the Romans intervened and threatened Bithynia into giving up Hannibal. The precise year and cause of Hannibal's death are unknown. Pausanias wrote that Hannibal's death occurred after his finger was wounded by his drawn sword while mounting his horse, resulting in a fever and then his death three days later.

Hannibal, discovering that the castle where he was living was surrounded by Roman soldiers and he could not escape, took poison. Appian writes that it was Prusias who poisoned Hannibal.

Pliny the Elder [76] and Plutarch , in his life of Flamininus, [77] record that Hannibal's tomb was at Libyssa on the coast of the Sea of Marmara.

Leake, [78] identifying Gebze with ancient Dakibyza, placed it further west. Before dying, Hannibal is said to have left behind a letter declaring, "Let us relieve the Romans from the anxiety they have so long experienced, since they think it tries their patience too much to wait for an old man's death".

Appian wrote of a prophecy about Hannibal's death, which stated that "Libyssan earth shall cover Hannibal's remains. Hannibal caused great distress to many in Roman society.

He became such a figure of terror that whenever disaster struck, the Roman senators would exclaim " Hannibal ante portas " "Hannibal is at the gates!

This famous Latin phrase became a common expression that is often still used when a client arrives through the door or when one is faced with calamity.

His legacy would be recorded by his Greek tutor, Sosylus of Lacedaemon. The Romans even built statues of the Carthaginian in the very streets of Rome to advertise their defeat of such a worthy adversary.

Nevertheless, the Romans grimly refused to admit the possibility of defeat and rejected all overtures for peace; they even refused to accept the ransom of prisoners after Cannae.

During the war there are no reports of revolutions among the Roman citizens, no factions within the Senate desiring peace, no pro-Carthaginian Roman turncoats, no coups.

Hannibal's military genius was not enough to really disturb the Roman political process and the collective political and military capacity of the Roman people.

As Lazenby states,. It says volumes, too, for their political maturity and respect for constitutional forms that the complicated machinery of government continued to function even amidst disaster—there are few states in the ancient world in which a general who had lost a battle like Cannae would have dared to remain, let alone would have continued to be treated respectfully as head of state.

The wailing cry of the matrons was heard everywhere, not only in private houses but even in the temples. Here they knelt and swept the temple-floors with their dishevelled hair and lifted up their hands to heaven in piteous entreaty to the gods that they would deliver the City of Rome out of the hands of the enemy and preserve its mothers and children from injury and outrage.

In the Senate the news was "received with varying feelings as men's temperaments differed," [88] so it was decided to keep Capua under siege, but to send 15, infantry and 1, cavalry as reinforcements to Rome.

An undeniable proof of Rome's confidence is demonstrated by the fact that after the Cannae disaster she was left virtually defenseless, but the Senate still chose not to withdraw a single garrison from an overseas province to strengthen the city.

In fact, they were reinforced and the campaigns there maintained until victory was secured; beginning first in Sicily under the direction of Claudius Marcellus , and later in Hispania under Scipio Africanus.

Most of the sources available to historians about Hannibal are from Romans. They considered him the greatest enemy Rome had ever faced. Livy gives us the idea that Hannibal was extremely cruel.

Even Cicero , when he talked of Rome and its two great enemies, spoke of the "honourable" Pyrrhus and the "cruel" Hannibal.

Yet a different picture sometimes emerges. When Hannibal's successes had brought about the death of two Roman consuls , he vainly searched for the body of Gaius Flaminius on the shores of Lake Trasimene , held ceremonial rituals in recognition of Lucius Aemilius Paullus , and sent Marcellus ' ashes back to his family in Rome.

Any bias attributed to Polybius , however, is more troublesome. Ormerod does not view him as an 'altogether unprejudiced witness' when it came to his pet peeves, the Aetolians, the Carthaginians, and the Cretans.

Hannibal is generally regarded [ by whom? According to Appian , several years after the Second Punic War, Hannibal served as a political advisor in the Seleucid Kingdom and Scipio arrived there on a diplomatic mission from Rome.

It is said that at one of their meetings in the gymnasium Scipio and Hannibal had a conversation on the subject of generalship, in the presence of a number of bystanders, and that Scipio asked Hannibal whom he considered the greatest general, to which the latter replied " Alexander of Macedonia ".

To this Scipio assented since he also yielded the first place to Alexander. Then he asked Hannibal whom he placed next, and he replied " Pyrrhus of Epirus ", because he considered boldness the first qualification of a general; "for it would not be possible", he said, "to find two kings more enterprising than these".

Scipio was rather nettled by this, but nevertheless he asked Hannibal to whom he would give the third place, expecting that at least the third would be assigned to him; but Hannibal replied, "to myself; for when I was a young man I conquered Hispania and crossed the Alps with an army, the first after Hercules.

As Scipio saw that he was likely to prolong his self-laudation he said, laughing, "where would you place yourself, Hannibal, if you had not been defeated by me?

Thus Hannibal continued his self-laudation, but flattered Scipio in an indirect manner by suggesting that he had conquered one who was the superior of Alexander.

At the end of this conversation Hannibal invited Scipio to be his guest, and Scipio replied that he would be so gladly if Hannibal were not living with Antiochus , who was held in suspicion by the Romans.

Thus did they, in a manner worthy of great commanders, cast aside their enmity at the end of their wars. Military academies all over the world continue to study Hannibal's exploits, especially his victory at Cannae.

As to the transcendent military genius of Hannibal there cannot be two opinions. The man who for fifteen years could hold his ground in a hostile country against several powerful armies and a succession of able generals must have been a commander and a tactician of supreme capacity.

In the use of strategies and ambuscades he certainly surpassed all other generals of antiquity. Wonderful as his achievements were, we must marvel the more when we take into account the grudging support he received from Carthage.

As his veterans melted away, he had to organize fresh levies on the spot. We never hear of a mutiny in his army, composed though it was of North Africans, Iberians and Gauls.

Again, all we know of him comes for the most part from hostile sources. The Romans feared and hated him so much that they could not do him justice.

Livy speaks of his great qualities, but he adds that his vices were equally great, among which he singles out his more than Punic perfidy and an inhuman cruelty.

For the first there would seem to be no further justification than that he was consummately skillful in the use of ambuscades.

For the latter there is, we believe, no more ground than that at certain crises he acted in the general spirit of ancient warfare.

Sometimes he contrasts most favorably with his enemy. No such brutality stains his name as that perpetrated by Gaius Claudius Nero on the vanquished Hasdrubal.

Polybius merely says that he was accused of cruelty by the Romans and of avarice by the Carthaginians. He had indeed bitter enemies, and his life was one continuous struggle against destiny.

For steadfastness of purpose, for organizing capacity and a mastery of military science he has perhaps never had an equal.

Even the Roman chroniclers acknowledged Hannibal's supreme military leadership, writing that "he never required others to do what he could not and would not do himself".

It is a remarkable and very cogent proof of Hannibal's having been by nature a real leader and far superior to anyone else in statesmanship, that though he spent seventeen years in the field, passed through so many barbarous countries, and employed to aid him in desperate and extraordinary enterprises numbers of men of different nations and languages, no one ever dreamt of conspiring against him, nor was he ever deserted by those who had once joined him or submitted to him.

Patton believed himself a reincarnation of Hannibal — as well as of many other people, including a Roman legionary and a Napoleonic soldier. But those same principles of war that applied to the days of Hannibal apply today.

According to the military historian Theodore Ayrault Dodge ,. Hannibal excelled as a tactician. No battle in history is a finer sample of tactics than Cannae.

But he was yet greater in logistics and strategy. No captain ever marched to and fro among so many armies of troops superior to his own numbers and material as fearlessly and skillfully as he.

No man ever held his own so long or so ably against such odds. Constantly overmatched by better soldiers, led by generals always respectable, often of great ability, he yet defied all their efforts to drive him from Italy, for half a generation.

Excepting in the case of Alexander, and some few isolated instances, all wars up to the Second Punic War, had been decided largely, if not entirely, by battle-tactics.

Strategic ability had been comprehended only on a minor scale. Armies had marched towards each other, had fought in parallel order, and the conqueror had imposed terms on his opponent.

Any variation from this rule consisted in ambuscades or other stratagems. That war could be waged by avoiding in lieu of seeking battle; that the results of a victory could be earned by attacks upon the enemy's communications, by flank-maneuvers, by seizing positions from which safely to threaten him in case he moved, and by other devices of strategy, was not understood That it did so was due to the teaching of Hannibal.

Hannibal is the "hero" of teenager Sigmund Freud. His idealized image is reflected in the analysis by the founder of psychoanalysis of his "dreams of Rome" in The Interpretation of Dreams.

Freud then associates it with the adage "All roads lead to Rome". He writes indeed in The Interpretation of Dreams: "Hannibal and Rome symbolized for the adolescent that I was the opposition between the tenacity of Judaism and the organizing spirit of the Catholic Church".

Some qualities have been recognized by Hannibal since Antiquity: audacity, courage and pugnacity. They are notably implemented during an adventure racing starting from Lyon and leading to Turin through the Alps and bearing his name: the Hannibal raid.

Hannibal covers most of North Africa with olive groves thanks to the work of his soldiers, whose rest he considers prejudicial to the State and their generals.

Hannibal's profile appears on the Tunisian five dinar bill issued on 8 November , as well as on another new bill put into circulation on 20 March His name is also given to a private television channel, Hannibal TV.

A mausoleum and colossus Hannibal, 17 meters high, is projected to be built on the Byrsa , the highest point of Carthage overlooking Tunis.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Hannibal disambiguation. For the fictional horror character, see Hannibal Lecter.

A marble bust, reputedly of Hannibal, originally found at the ancient city-state of Capua in Italy. Main article: Second Punic War.

Main article: Hannibal's crossing of the Alps. Main article: Battle of the Trebia. Main article: Battle of Lake Trasimene. Main article: Battle of Cannae.

Main article: Battle of Zama. See also: Cultural depictions of Hannibal. Plutarch adds that "when asked what his choices would be if he had beaten Scipio, he replied that he would be the best of them all".

However, Plutarch gives another version in his Life of Pyrrhus , 8. Da Capo Press. Israel and Hellas: Sacred institutions with Roman counterparts.

Personal Names in the Phoenician and Punic Inscriptions. Studien zu Plautus' Poenulus. Phönizisch-Punische Grammatik.

Lancel, Hannibal p. Hannibal p. Hannibal: Challenging Rome's Supremacy p. A Horizon guide: great historic places of Europe. American Heritage Pub.

Retrieved 6 June Lecture "The Second Punic War". Teaching Company, "Great Courses" series. Perseus Books Group.

Gorgias Press. Numismatics International Bulletin. Retrieved 5 October — via Wiley Online Library. Lancel, Hannibal ; English translation page Retrieved 23 July Evelyn S.

Shuckburgh London: Macmillan, , I. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Scipio Africanus: Soldier and Politician , p. Gabriel, Richard. Scipio Africanus: Rome's Greatest General , p.

Noctes Atticae , book V. Athens: Ekdotiki Athinon. Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda, p. Perseus Digital Library. Retrieved 10 April Retrieved 5 October Leake, Journal of a Tour in Asia Minor , p.

The Roman historians. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 29 May Lazenby, The Hannibalic War , p.

Hachette UK published Retrieved 15 May Piracy in the Ancient World , p. In Chisholm, Hugh ed. Cambridge University Press.

Psychology Press. Hannibal: Enemy of Rome. Patton: A Genius for War. Espace Manager. Baker, George P. New York: Dodd, Mead.

Bickerman, Elias J. American Journal of Philology. Bradford, Ernle; Scullard, H. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Caven, Brian The Punic Wars. New York: St. Martin's Press. Cottrell, Leonard New York: Da Capo Press. Daly, Gregory London: Routledge.

De Beer, Gavin Hannibal: Challenging Rome's Supremacy. New York: Viking Press. Garland, Robert London: Bristol Classical Press.

Delbrück, Hans Warfare in antiquity. Walter J. Renfroe, trans. Lincoln: Univ. Dodge, Theodore Ayrault Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Hoyos, Dexter Hannibal's dynasty power and politics in the western Mediterranean, BC.

Exeter: Bristol Phoenix Press. Lamb, Harold

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