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Bonacelli Company summary
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'Bei Bonacelli werden die besten italienischen Stoffe von u.a. Cerruti und Loro Piana zu Anzügen, Sakkos und Hosen in Handarbeit verarbeitet. Dazu produziert. Bonacelli Schnäppchen aus dem Bereich Mode für Herren bis zu 80 % sparen. Paolo Bonacelli (* Februar in Civita Castellana) ist ein italienischer Schauspieler. Inhaltsverzeichnis. 1 Leben; 2 Filmographie (Auswahl); 3 Weblinks. Suzy Amis Daily Telegraph. He was a great patron of both the visual and literary arts, and encouraged and financed the humanist and Neoplatonist circle from which much of the character of Botticelli's mythological painting seems to come. Sesame Workshop. In general Lorenzo Bill Irwin not seem to have Scream Ganzer Film Deutsch much from Botticelli, preferring Pollaiuolo and others,  although views on this differ. Bocelli's parents, Alessandro, 68, and Edi, 59, sold farm equipment and produced wine in tiny Lajatico, in Tuscany about Forger miles from Pisa. Archived from the original on 3 January In Bonacelli, Bocelli gave three concerts in Germany.
Sculptures by Swiss artist Kurt Laurenz Metzler , who attended the concert, were exhibited during this year's edition.
Bocelli was also awarded the Pisano Doc , during the dress rehearsal for the concert, on 24 July, and received the Premio Lunezia nel mondo , during a private ceremony held on 21 July, for "the musical-literary quality of his songs.
All proceeds were donated to help cure cancer. Bocelli also gave concerts in Cairo , Egypt, in front of the pyramids and the Great Sphinx of Giza , as well as a fundraising concert inside the Duomo di Milano to benefit victims of the Haiti earthquake.
Bocelli also took part in the Christmas in Washington special on 12 December. In January, Bocelli gave three concerts in Germany.
In February, Bocelli performed a recital on the stage of the Metropolitan Opera house as part of the tour. On 17 November, he performed at the Children in Need Rocks Manchester concert, gaining critical acclaim for receiving a standing ovation from a crowd of pop and indie music fans.
He cancelled a third performance with pharyngitis after suffering vocal strain throughout. A new studio album entitled Passione , featuring duets with Jennifer Lopez and Nelly Furtado , was released on 29 January Bocelli released his fifteenth studio album Cinema on 23 October It contains renditions of classic film soundtracks and scores , featuring duets with Ariana Grande , Nicole Scherzinger and his wife Veronica Berti.
On 7 May , Bocelli performed at the King Power Stadium before Leicester City 's final match of the —16 Premier League against Everton , as part of the club's title celebrations.
The song is a duet version of Sheeran's song " Perfect ", with many of the original English lyrics sung in Italian.
In June , Bocelli released the single "If Only", his first after fourteen years. The two performed the song on 22 October episode of Dancing With the Stars.
Bocelli is a widely popular singer with a substantial fan base worldwide. However, he is also a polarizing figure in classical music, whose voice and performances have routinely been the subject of negative reviews by critics.
Italian spinto tenor Franco Corelli praised Bocelli's voice after hearing it for the first time during a master class in , in Turin , and he later gave Bocelli private lessons.
And this purity of heart and beauty of sound just touches the listener. It can't be described. Celine Dion said while introducing him during her Christmas Special for These Are Special Times , in , that "if God would have a singing voice, he must sound a lot like Andrea Bocelli,"   and David Foster , a producer of the album, often describes Bocelli's voice as the most beautiful in the world.
Similarly, jazz singer Al Jarreau , who performed with Bocelli on the " Night of the Proms " tour in Europe in , described him as "the most beautiful voice in the world,"  and American talk show host Oprah Winfrey commented on her talk show that, "when I hear Andrea sing, I burst into tears.
God has kissed this man and I thank God for it. Bocelli's voice, more specifically his interpretation of opera, has been regularly criticized by classical music critics.
Bocelli's voice is warm and pleasant, but he lacks the technique to support and project his sound. His sustained notes wobble.
His soft high notes are painfully weak. Inadequate breath control often forces him to clip off notes prematurely at the end of phrases.
In describing Bocelli's singing, The New York Times music critic Bernard Holland noted, "the tone is rasping, thin and, in general, poorly supported.
Even the most modest upward movement thins it even more, signalling what appears to be the onset of strangulation. To his credit, Mr Bocelli sings mostly in tune.
But his phrasing tends toward carelessness and rhythmic jumble The diction is not clear. Bocelli's voice — though robust in spirit and precisely in tune, even in the upper register — had a thin quality that never opened up.
During a performance in New York, the music critic Steve Smith wrote "For cognoscenti of vocal artistry the risks involved in Mr.
Bocelli's undertakings, both then and now, need no explanation. Substantial technical shortcomings masked by amplification are laid bare in a more conventional classical setting.
Bocelli's tone can be pleasant, and his pitch is generally secure. But his voice is small and not well supported; his phrasing, wayward and oddly inexpressive.
In , Joe Banno of The Washington Post gave an unfavorable review of Bocelli's Carmen recording , describing the oft-noted failings in Bocelli's vocal resources on full display in this performance: "Bocelli, to be fair, possesses an essentially lovely tenor and knows his stuff when it comes to selling a pop ballad.
And Decca's close miking of his puny voice inflates his sound to near-Franco Corelli-like dimensions. But his short-breathed, clumsily phrased, interpretively blank and often pinched and strained singing makes his Don Jose a tough listen.
Bocelli met his first wife, Enrica Cenzatti,  while singing at piano bars early in his career. Their first child, son Amos, was born 22 February They met in In September , the couple announced that Berti was expecting her first and Bocelli's third child, a daughter,  in the spring.
His daughter Virginia was born 21 March Bocelli's first wife and two sons live in the couple's previous residence in the same comune , in Versilia.
On 30 April , Bocelli's father, Alessandro Bocelli, died. His mother encouraged him to honor his commitments, and so he sang for Pope John Paul II , in Rome, on 1 May, and immediately returned home for the funeral.
Although he is blind, Bocelli has enjoyed horseback riding for much of his life. A section of the beach in Jesolo , on the Italian Adriatic coast , was named after Bocelli on 11 August Bocelli is a self-declared fan of Italian soccer club Inter Milan.
In an interview in Pisa, he told a group of Inter fans that "My passion for Inter started during my college years, when Inter was winning everything in Italy and the world.
When Inter won the Champions League in , I was with my friends and I was listening to the game on the radio, and everything was a little bit in advance so I was celebrating before them.
That night I was also brought to tears of joy. The treble is a feeling no one in Italy will be able to equal". In , Bocelli convinced the municipality of his hometown Lajatico to build an outdoor theatre, the " Teatro del Silenzio ".
Bocelli is the author, and co-author, of numerous works available in Italian, English, and other languages.
Some books are available in Braille and others in large print. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For his second album, see Bocelli album.
Operatic pop classical crossover easy listening latin pop traditional pop. Singer tenor songwriter multi-instrumentalist record producer.
Vocals piano flute fiddle. Main article: List of awards and nominations received by Andrea Bocelli. Main article: Teatro del Silenzio. Main article: Andrea Bocelli discography.
Archived from the original on 15 May Retrieved 27 May Decca Records. Universal Music. Archived from the original on 30 April Retrieved 10 December BBC News.
The Age. The Washington Post. Retrieved 27 July Retrieved 6 January Retrieved 7 January Thaindian News. Retrieved 24 June Retrieved 1 December Archived from the original on 19 October Retrieved 4 January Retrieved 22 July Bocelli's parents, Alessandro, 68, and Edi, 59, sold farm equipment and produced wine in tiny Lajatico, in Tuscany about 20 miles from Pisa.
The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 9 December The Augusta Chronicle. Retrieved 14 December The Scotsman. October—November Retrieved 25 October The Guardian.
Retrieved 28 July Retrieved 20 January Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 21 December Corriere Della Sera in Italian. Archived from the original on 27 August Retrieved 6 June July Alfred Music Publishing.
Archived from the original on 7 January Retrieved 29 January International Herald Tribune. Archived from the original on 3 November Retrieved 21 January Sesame Workshop.
Archived from the original on 19 January Retrieved 15 December Archived from the original on 3 January Radio Italia Solo Musica Italiana.
March Retrieved 22 January BBC Entertainment. Retrieved 24 December Molto Italy. Archived from the original on 28 August Archived from the original on 3 February Tina Arena.
Archived from the original on 6 December Retrieved 31 October Archived from the original on 25 January Archived from the original on 11 October Retrieved 4 April Classic FM.
CNN iReport. Archived from the original on 12 August NRK in Norwegian. Retrieved 12 December People's Daily Online.
The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on 16 December People's Daily. Archived from the original on 29 February The Korea Times.
Taiwan News. Taiwan Culture Portal. Archived from the original on 3 December YTL Community. Most of the "text" is scribbles, but one line reads: "Where is Brother Martino?
He went out. And where did he go? He is outside Porta al Prato", probably dialogue overheard from the Uumiliati , the order who ran the church. Lightbown suggests that this shows Botticelli thought "the example of Jerome and Augustine likely to be thrown away on the Umiliati as he knew them".
Sacra conversazione altarpiece, c. Sebastian , Fresco Saint Augustine , Ognissanti, This large project was to be the main decoration of the chapel; most of the frescos remain, but are now greatly overshadowed and disrupted by Michelangelo 's work of the next century, to make room for which some of them were destroyed.
After Sixtus was implicated in the Pazzi conspiracy hostilities had escalated into excommunication for Lorenzo and other Florentine officials and a small "Pazzi War".
The iconographic scheme was a pair of cycles, facing each other on the sides of the chapel, of the Life of Christ and the Life of Moses , together suggesting the supremacy of the Papacy.
Botticelli's contribution included three of the original fourteen large scenes: the Temptations of Christ , Youth of Moses and Punishment of the Sons of Corah or various other titles ,  as well as several of the imagined portraits of popes in the level above, and paintings of unknown subjects in the lunettes above, where Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel ceiling now is.
He may have also done a fourth scene on the end wall opposite the altar, now destroyed. Vasari implies that Botticelli was given overall artistic charge of the project, but modern art historians think it more likely that Pietro Perugino , the first artist to be employed, was given this role, if anyone was.
The schemes present a complex and coherent programme asserting Papal supremacy, and are more unified in this than in their artistic style, although the artists follow a consistent scale and broad compositional layout, with crowds of figures in the foreground and mainly landscape in the top half of the scene.
Allowing for the painted pilasters that separate each scene, the level of the horizon matches between scenes, and Moses wears the same yellow and green clothes in his scenes.
Botticelli differs from his colleagues in imposing a more insistent triptych -like composition, dividing each of his scenes into a main central group with two flanking groups at the sides, showing different incidents.
Of those surviving, most scholars agree that ten were designed by Botticelli, and five probably at least partly by him, although all have been damaged and restored.
The Punishment of the Sons of Corah contains what was for Botticelli an unusually close, if not exact, copy of a classical work.
This is the rendering in the centre of the north side of the Arch of Constantine in Rome, which he repeated in about in The Story of Lucretia.
He had perhaps been away from July to, at the latest, May The masterpieces Primavera c. They are among the most famous paintings in the world, and icons of the Italian Renaissance.
As depictions of subjects from classical mythology on a very large scale they were virtually unprecedented in Western art since classical antiquity.
Together with the smaller and less celebrated Venus and Mars and Pallas and the Centaur , they have been endlessly analysed by art historians , with the main themes being: the emulation of ancient painters and the context of wedding celebrations, the influence of Renaissance Neo-Platonism , and the identity of the commissioners and possible models for the figures.
Though all carry differing degrees of complexity in their meanings, they also have an immediate visual appeal that accounts for their enormous popularity.
All show dominant and beautiful female figures in an idyllic world of feeling, with a sexual element. Continuing scholarly attention mainly focuses on the poetry and philosophy of contemporary Renaissance humanists.
The works do not illustrate particular texts; rather, each relies upon several texts for its significance. Their beauty was characterized by Vasari as exemplifying "grace" and by John Ruskin as possessing linear rhythm.
The pictures feature Botticelli's linear style at its most effective, emphasized by the soft continual contours and pastel colors. The Primavera and the Birth were both seen by Vasari in the midth century at the Villa di Castello , owned from by Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de' Medici, and until the publication in of a Medici inventory of ,  it was assumed that both works were painted specifically for the villa.
Recent scholarship suggests otherwise: the Primavera was painted for Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco's townhouse in Florence, and The Birth of Venus was commissioned by someone else for a different site.
Botticelli painted only a small number of mythological subjects, but these are now probably his best known works.
A much smaller panel than those discussed before is his Venus and Mars in the National Gallery, London.
This was of a size and shape to suggest that it was a spalliera , a painting made to fitted into either furniture, or more likely in this case, wood panelling.
The wasps buzzing around Mars' head suggest that it may have been painted for a member of his neighbours the Vespucci family, whose name means "little wasps" in Italian, and who featured wasps in their coat of arms.
Mars lies asleep, presumably after lovemaking, while Venus watches as infant satyrs play with his military gear, and one tries to rouse him by blowing a conch shell in his ear.
The painting was no doubt given to celebrate a marriage, and decorate the bedchamber. Three of these four large mythologies feature Venus , a central figure in Renaissance Neoplatonism , which gave divine love as important a place in its philosophy as did Christianity.
The fourth, Pallas and the Centaur is clearly connected with the Medici by the symbol on Pallas' dress. The two figures are roughly life-size, and a number of specific personal, political or philosophic interpretations have been proposed to expand on the basic meaning of the submission of passion to reason.
Botticelli returned from Rome in with a reputation considerably enhanced by his work there. As with his secular paintings, many religious commissions are larger and no doubt more expensive than before.
By the mids, many leading Florentine artists had left the city, some never to return. The rising star Leonardo da Vinci , who scoffed at Botticelli's landscapes,  left in for Milan , the Pollaiolo brothers in for Rome, and Andrea Verrochio in for Venice.
The remaining leaders of Florentine painting, Botticelli, Domenico Ghirlandaio and Filippino Lippi , worked on a major fresco cycle with Perugino , for Lorenzo the Magnificent 's villa at Spedalletto near Volterra.
The first major church commission after Rome was the Bardi Altarpiece , finished and framed by February ,  and now in Berlin. The frame was by no less a figure than Giuliano da Sangallo , who was just becoming Lorenzo il Magnifico's favourite architect.
An enthroned Madonna and rather large Child sit on an elaborately-carved raised stone bench in a garden, with plants and flowers behind them closing off all but small patches of sky, to give a version of the hortus conclusus or closed garden, a very traditional setting for the Virgin Mary.
Saints John the Baptist and an unusually elderly John the Evangelist stand in the foreground. Small and inconspicuous banderoles or ribbons carrying biblical verses elucidate the rather complex theological meaning of the work, for which Botticelli must have had a clerical advisor, but do not intrude on a simpler appreciation of the painting and its lovingly detailed rendering, which Vasari praised.
The donor, from the leading Bardi family , had returned to Florence from over twenty years as a banker and wool merchant in London, where he was known as "John de Barde",  and aspects of the painting may reflect north European and even English art and popular devotional trends.
A larger and more crowded altarpiece is the San Barnaba Altarpiece of about , now in the Uffizi, where elements of Botticelli's emotional late style begin to appear.
Here the setting is a palatial heavenly interior in the latest style, showing Botticelli taking a new degree of interest in architecture, possibly influenced by Sangallo.
The Virgin and Child are raised high on a throne, at the same level as four angels carrying the Instruments of the Passion. Six saints stand in line below the throne.
Several figures have rather large heads, and the infant Jesus is again very large. While the faces of the Virgin, child and angels have the linear beauty of his tondos, the saints are given varied and intense expressions.
Four small and rather simple predella panels survive; there were probably originally seven. With the phase of painting large secular works probably over by the late s, Botticelli painted several altarpieces, and this appears to have been a peak period for his workshop's production of Madonnas.
Botticelli's largest altarpiece, the San Marco Altarpiece x cm, Uffizi , is the only one to remain with its full predella , of five panels.
In the air above four saints, the Coronation of the Virgin is taking place in a heavenly zone of gold and bright colours that recall his earlier works, with encircling angels dancing and throwing flowers.
In contrast, the Cestello Annunciation —90, Uffizi forms a natural grouping with other late paintings, especially two of the Lamentation of Christ that share its sombre background colouring, and the rather exaggerated expressiveness of the bending poses of the figures.
It does have an unusually detailed landscape, still in dark colours, seen through the window, which seems to draw on north European models, perhaps from prints.
Of the two Lamentations , one is in an unusual vertical format, because, like his Saint Sebastian , it was painted for the side of a pillar in the Church of Santa Maria Maggiore, Florence ; it is now in Milan.
The other, horizontal, one was painted for a chapel on the corner of Botticelli's street; it is now in Munich.
In both the crowded, intertwined figures around the dead Christ take up nearly all the picture space, with only bare rock behind. The Virgin has swooned , and the other figures form a scrum to support her and Christ.
Both probably date from to Early records mentioned, without describing it, an altarpiece by Botticelli for the Convertite, an institution for ex-prostitutes, and various surviving unprovenanced works were proposed as candidates.
It is now generally accepted that a painting in the Courtauld Gallery in London is the Pala delle Convertite , dating to about — Its subject, unusual for an altarpiece, is the Holy Trinity , with Christ on the cross, supported from behind by God the Father.
Angels surround the Trinity, which is flanked by two saints, with Tobias and the Angel on a far smaller scale right in the foreground.
This was probably a votive addition, perhaps requested by the original donor. The four predella scenes, showing the life of Mary Magdalen , then taken as a reformed prostitute herself, are in the Philadelphia Museum of Art.
After about or Botticelli seems to have painted no more large religious paintings, though production of Madonnas probably continued.
The smaller narrative religious scenes of the last years are covered below. Cestello Annunciation , , x cm, Uffizi. Lamentation over the Dead Christ , Milan.
Pala delle Convertite , c. Paintings of the Madonna and Child , that is, the Virgin Mary and infant Jesus , were enormously popular in 15th-century Italy in a range of sizes and formats, from large altarpieces of the sacra conversazione type to small paintings for the home.
They also often hung in offices, public buildings, shops and clerical institutions. These smaller paintings were a steady source of income for painters at all levels of quality, and many were probably produced for stock, without a specific commission.
Botticelli painted Madonnas from the start of his career until at least the s. He was one of the first painters to use the round tondo format, with the painted area typically some to cm across about four to five feet.
This format was more associated with paintings for palaces than churches, though they were large enough to be hung in churches, and some were later donated to them.
He used the tondo format for other subjects, such as an early Adoration of the Magi in London,  and was apparently more likely to paint a tondo Madonna himself, usually leaving rectangular ones to his workshop.
Botticelli's Virgins are always beautiful, in the same idealized way as his mythological figures, and often richly dressed in contemporary style.
Although Savonarola 's main strictures were against secular art, he also complained of the paintings in Florentine churches that "You have made the Virgin appear dressed as a whore",  which may have had an effect on Botticelli's style.
They are often accompanied by equally beautiful angels, or an infant Saint John the Baptist the patron saint of Florence.
Some feature flowers, and none the detailed landscape backgrounds that other artists were developing. Many exist in several versions of varying quality, often with the elements other than the Virgin and Child different.
Many of these were produced by Botticelli or, especially, his workshop, and others apparently by unconnected artists.
When interest in Botticelli revived in the 19th century, it was initially largely in his Madonnas, which then began to be forged on a considerable scale.
In the Magnificat Madonna in the Uffizi cm or She holds the baby Jesus, and is surrounded by wingless angels impossible to distinguish from fashionably-dressed Florentine youths.
Botticelli painted a number of portraits, although not nearly as many as have been attributed to him. There are a number of idealized portrait-like paintings of women which probably do not represent a specific person several closely resemble the Venus in his Venus and Mars.
With one or two exceptions his small independent panel portraits show the sitter no further down the torso than about the bottom of the rib-cage. Women are normally in profile, full or just a little turned, whereas men are normally a "three-quarters" pose, but never quite seen completely frontally.
Even when the head is facing more or less straight ahead, the lighting is used to create a difference between the sides of the face.
Backgrounds may be plain, or show an open window, usually with nothing but sky visible through it. A few have developed landscape backgrounds.
These characteristics were typical of Florentine portraits at the beginning of his career, but old-fashioned by his last years.
Many portraits exist in several versions, probably most mainly by the workshop; there is often uncertainty in their attribution. His male portraits have also often held dubious identifications, most often of various Medicis, for longer than the real evidence supports.
Botticelli often slightly exaggerates aspects of the features to increase the likeness. Young Man, Pitti Palace , perhaps Portrait of a Lady Known as Smeralda Brandini , s, shown as pregnant.
Giuliano de' Medici , who was assassinated in the Pazzi conspiracy. Several versions , all perhaps posthumous. Portrait of a Young Man c.
Portrait of a young woman , possibly Simonetta Vespucci , La Bella Simonetta Simonetta Vespucci , c. Botticelli had a lifelong interest in the great Florentine poet Dante Alighieri , which produced works in several media.
Botticelli's attempt to design the illustrations for a printed book was unprecedented for a leading painter, and though it seems to have been something of a flop, this was a role for artists that had an important future.
The Divine Comedy consists of cantos, and the printed text left space for one engraving for each canto.
However, only 19 illustrations were engraved, and most copies of the book have only the first two or three.
The first two, and sometimes three, are usually printed on the book page, while the later ones are printed on separate sheets that are pasted into place.
This suggests that the production of the engravings lagged behind the printing, and the later illustrations were pasted into the stock of printed and bound books, and perhaps sold to those who had already bought the book.
Unfortunately Baldini was neither very experienced nor talented as an engraver, and was unable to express the delicacy of Botticelli's style in his plates.
Botticelli later began a luxury manuscript illustrated Dante on parchment , most of which was taken only as far as the underdrawings , and only a few pages are fully illuminated.
This manuscript has 93 surviving pages 32 x 47 cm , now divided between the Vatican Library 8 sheets and Berlin 83 , and represents the bulk of Botticelli's surviving drawings.
Once again, the project was never completed, even at the drawing stage, but some of the early cantos appear to have been at least drawn but are now missing.
The pages that survive have always been greatly admired, and much discussed, as the project raises many questions. Botticelli then appears to have worked on the drawings over a long period, as stylistic development can be seen, and matched to his paintings.
Although other patrons have been proposed inevitably including Medicis, in particular the younger Lorenzo, or il Magnifico , some scholars think that Botticelli made the manuscript for himself.
There are hints that Botticelli may have worked on illustrations for printed pamphlets by Savonarola, almost all destroyed after his fall.
Botticelli became associated by historians with the Florentine School under the patronage of Lorenzo de' Medici , a movement historians would later characterize as a " golden age ".
Lorenzo il Magnifico became the head of the family in , just around the time Botticelli started his own workshop.
He was a great patron of both the visual and literary arts, and encouraged and financed the humanist and Neoplatonist circle from which much of the character of Botticelli's mythological painting seems to come.
In general Lorenzo does not seem to have commissioned much from Botticelli, preferring Pollaiuolo and others,  although views on this differ.
Although the patrons of many works not for churches remain unclear, Botticelli seems to have been used more by Lorenzo il Magnifico's two young cousins, his younger brother Giuliano ,  and other families allied to the Medici.
Tommaso Soderini, a close ally of Lorenzo, obtained the commission for the figure of Fortitude of which is Botticelli's earliest securely dated painting, completing a series of the Seven Virtues left unfinished by Piero Pollaiuolo.
Possibly they had been introduced by a Vespucci who had tutored Soderini's son. Antonio Pucci, another Medici ally, probably commissioned the London Adoration of the Magi , also around Giuliano de' Medici was assassinated in the Pazzi conspiracy of Lorenzo narrowly escaped, saved by his bank manager , and a portrait said to be Giuliano which survives in several versions may be posthumous, or with at least one version from not long before his death.
According to Vasari, Botticelli became a follower of the deeply moralistic Dominican friar Girolamo Savonarola , who preached in Florence from until his execution in .
Botticelli was a follower of Savonarola's, and this was why he gave up painting and then fell into considerable distress as he had no other source of income.
None the less, he remained an obstinate member of the sect, becoming one of the piagnoni , the snivellers, as they were called then, and abandoning his work; so finally, as an old man, he found himself so poor that if Lorenzo de' Medici The extent of Savonarola's influence on Botticelli remains uncertain; his brother Simone was more clearly a follower.
Vasari's assertion that Botticelli produced nothing after coming under the influence of Savonarola is not accepted by modern art historians.
The Mystical Nativity , Botticelli's only painting to carry an actual date, if one cryptically expressed, comes from late ,  eighteen months after Savonarola died, and the development of his style can be traced through a number of late works, as discussed below.
In late , some four years after Savonarola's death, Isabella d'Este wanted a painting done in Florence.
Her agent Francesco Malatesta wrote to inform her that her first choice, Perugino, was away, Filippino Lippi had a full schedule for six months, but Botticelli was free to start at once, and ready to oblige.
She preferred to wait for Perugino's return. Many datings of works have a range up to , though he did live a further five years.
This may be partly because of the time he devoted to the drawings for the manuscript Dante. Botticelli returned to subjects from antiquity in the s, with a few smaller works on subjects from ancient history containing more figures and showing different scenes from each story, including moments of dramatic action.
These are the Calumny of Apelles c. The Mystical Nativity , a relatively small and very personal painting, perhaps for his own use, appears to be dated to the end of The iconography of the familiar subject of the Nativity is unique, with features including devils hiding in the rock below the scene, and must be highly personal.
Another painting, known as the Mystic Crucifixion now Fogg Art Museum , clearly relates to the state, and fate, of Florence, shown in the background behind Christ on the Cross, beside which an angel whips a marzocco , the heraldic lion that is a symbol of the city.
This can be connected more directly to the convulsions of the expulsion of the Medici, Savonarola's brief supremacy, and the French invasion.
Unfortunately it is very damaged, such that it may not be by Botticelli, while it is certainly in his style.